Deniers: Marshall Institute

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1625 K Street, NW, Suite 1050 Washington, DC 20006 Phone: 202-296-9655 Fax: 202-296-9714

Founded in 1984, The George Marshall Institute primarily focused on defense issues, advocating funding for Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative and Star Wars. GMI has since branched out and is one of the leading think tanks trying to debunk climate change.

GMI works on a range of issues, including civic environmentalism, climate change, national defense, bioterrorism, and missile defense. GMI publishes papers and holds roundtables. Many of these roundtables have featured climate change skeptics such as Roger Bate, Willie Soon, Margo Thorning, and GMI's own Sallie Baliunas. In 1989, the Marshall Institute released a report arguing that cyclical variations in the intensity of the sun would offset any climate change associated with elevated greenhouse gases. Although it was refuted by the IPCC, the report was used by the Bush Sr. Administration to argue for a more lenient climate change policy. GMI has since published numerous reports and articles attacking the Kyoto protocol and undermining the climate science. GMI is a former member of the Cooler Heads Coalition. GMI used to restrict its funding sources to private foundations and individual donars to avoid conflict of interest, but in the late nineties, then GMI President Jeffrey Salmon wrote, when the Institute turned its attention to the science of global warming, it decided it would appeal successfully to industry for financial support. This fall, the Institute received its first-ever grant from a corporate foundation-- the Exxon Education Foundation. ( According to Media, the Institute received $5,757,803 since 1985 from conservative foundations including the Castle Rock Foundation (Coors), Earhart Foundation, John M. Olin Foundation, the Sarah Scaife Foundation, Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, and the Carthage research paper

Key Quotes

April, 2004

"Wise, effective climate policy flows from a sound scientific foundation and a clear understanding of what science does and does not tell us about human influence and about courses of action to manage risk. Many of the temperature data and computer models used to predict climate change are themselves uncertain. Reducing these many uncertainties requires a significant shift in the way climate change research is carried out in the U.S. and elsewhere."
Source: George Marshall Institute website 4/04

February 12, 2007

"Surface temperature records over recent decades and projections for the future are subject to continuing debate. The number of surface measuring stations has declined dramatically and the loss of that data may seriously affect the accuracy of surface temperature measurements. Without better, more accurate, and spatially comprehensive global surface measurements and the factors that influence them, the computer models used to project future temperatures do not have the certainty that is asserted for them." "While the [IPCC] SPM’s underlying assessment documents should provide an improved basis for evaluating the benefits of additional actions, the underlying state of knowledge does not justify scare tactics or provide sufficient support for proposals of the kind of actions being proposed by some industrial companies, environmental organizations and members of Congress to suppress energy use and impose large economic burdens on the US economy."
Source: George Marshall Institute, Statement on the IPCC Fourth Assessment SPM, Feb 2007 [PDF]

Key Deeds

April 12, 2004

Sponsored a "Washington Roundtable on Science and Public Policy" at which Dr. David Legates gave a presentation entitled "Global Warming and the Hydrological Cycle." Legates argued that climate change is unlikely to cause increased extreme weather.
Source: "Global Warming and the Hydrological Cycle," David Legates 4/12/04

December 14, 2005

Published the book "Shattered Consensus: The True State of Global Warming," edited by Patrick J. Michaels and containing essays by global warming skeptics Sallie L. Baliunas, Robert C. Balling Jr., Randall S. Cerveny, John Christy, Robert E. Davis, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Ross McKitrick, Patrick J. Michaels, Eric S. Posmentier, Willie Soon.
Source: George Marshall Institute, "Shattered Consensus" , Dec 2005


George C. Marshall Institute has received $715,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998.

$50,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
'support for science and public policy education programs'
Source: ExxonMobil Foundation 1999 IRS 990

$50,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
general support
Source: ExxonMobil Foundation 2000 IRS 990

$60,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
'climate change work'
Source: ExxonMobil 2001 Annual Report

$80,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
'global climate change program'
Source: ExxonMobil 2002 Annual Report

$10,000 ExxonMobil Corporate Giving
Awards Dinner
Source: ExxonMobil 2002 Annual Report

$95,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
Global Climate Change Program
Source: ExxonMobil 2003 Corporate Giving Report

$25,000 Exxon Corporation
Awards Dinner -- Climate Change Activities
Source: Exxon Giving Report 2004

$145,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
Climate Change
Source: Exxon Giving Report 2004

$90,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
DISCREPANCY: 2005 Corporate Giving Report: General Operating Support. IRS 990 form 2005: Climate Change.
Source: ExxonMobil 2005 DIMENSIONS Report (Corporate Giving)

$25,000 ExxonMobil Corporate Giving
Awards Dinner and General Operating Support
Source: ExxonMobil 2005 DIMENSIONS Report (Corporate Giving)

$85,000 ExxonMobil Corporate Giving
General support and annual dinner
Source: ExxonMobil Corporate Giving Report 2006

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